Migration of HIV infected individuals from cities to small towns and rural areas spreads AIDS among non urban population, superimposing HIV with other endemic or epidemic infections as parasitoses. This situation is a big challenge to public health because in most cases the association between these infections worsens both prognoses. We present here the first case in Argentina of AIDS associated to a mucocutaneous form of American tegumentary leishmaniasis. The patient was from Orán, an area where in the middle eighties, an epidemic outbreak took place. By now more than 2000 cases have been parasitologically confirmed in our Institute and the causing species were identified as Leishmania (V.) braziliensis and L. (L.) amasonensis. Considering the existence of co-infection of HIV and Leishmania, it is recommended that in patients from endemic areas with records of cutaneous or mucocutaneous ulcers, even healed, leishmaniasis must be investigated, among other diseases.